The Royal Navy had three battlecruisers at the beginning of the Second World War: Renown, Repulse, and Hood. [16], The Project 69 ships were intended to use a newly designed 305-millimeter (12 in) gun in a new triple turret, but they were both well behind schedule when Joseph Stalin asked the Germans in February 1940 if any triple 283-millimeter (11.1 in) turrets were available for purchase under the German–Soviet Commercial Agreement. During the Cold War, Russia built four 252m long, 28,000 ton monsters: Huge, heavily armoured ‘battlecruisers’ specifically designed to carry a cargo of high powered, long range missiles. not an aircraft carrier or amphibious assault ship) in operation in the world. The remainder of the armor was intended to resist 6-inch (152 mm) high explosive shells and 500-kilogram (1,100 lb) HE bombs. Traverse speed was 70° per second. [10], The armor scheme of the battlecruisers was quite complex with armor plates of no less than 25 different thicknesses used. It was to be armored to withstand 203 mm shells with a speed not less than 36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph), a range of 10,000 nautical miles (19,000 km; 12,000 mi) at 20 knots (37 km/h; 23 mph) and able to carry four seaplanes launched by two catapults. 5,000 tonnes (4,900 long tons) of fuel oil were carried which gave a range of 5,000 nmi (9,300 km; 5,800 mi) at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). Their thicknesses varied depending on location and ranged oddly from 100 mm (3.9 in) amidships to 20 mm (0.79 in) over the 305 mm magazines. It was first built in the time of the Soviet Union. The outer space was left empty, but the two middle spaces were filled with oil that was intended to be exchanged with sea water as it was consumed, and the inner space was also to be left empty. Fast and powerful, but vulnerable to fire from heavy vessels, the sight of Lion at the head of Beatty’s battlecruiser fleet was a stirring sight which disguised the basic frailty of high speed, lightly armored vessels.. ‘Battle Cruiser’ is not a category of warship that is used very often, not since World War II. [22], The first ship was begun in November 1951 and the other two followed in 1952; a fourth was apparently ordered from the Severodvinsk shipyard, but was cancelled before being laid down. Two ships were started but none were completed due to World War II. The World War II Database is founded and managed by C. Peter Chen of Lava Development, LLC. When Frunze was commissioned in 1984, it was seen to have a different weapons fit to Kirov, with the pair of single 100 mm guns swapped for a twin 130-millimetre (5.1 in) turret, and the SS-N-14 Silex ASW missile system deleted in favour of adding eight SA-N-9 Gauntlet SAM launchers. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). The United States Navy is the biggest and most powerful in the world. At the time, the Soviets did not envisage that arming surface ships with anti-ship missiles was required, as then current doctrine had it that submarines were the main platform for attacking enemy shipping. The roots of the Project 82-class began back in May 1941 when the Main Naval Staff approved tactical requirements (Russian: Operativno Takticheskoye Zadanie, OTZ) for a medium-sized cruiser between the light cruisers of the Kirov and Chapayev classes, and the Kronshtadts. The initial dates of the ships correspond to the launch time, followed by a separation that indicates their retirement or final date. Joseph Stalin was the key supporter of these ships and made many of the important decisions himself, overriding the desires of the Navy. The threat of US Navy surface ships, which were increasingly capable of a range of different missions, led to the idea of a single ship combining anti-aircraft, anti-ship and anti-submarine capabilities crystalising. By 1 January 1953 Stalingrad was intended to be 42.9% complete, but was actually only 18.8% done. Undeterred, the Navy continued studying cruiser designs and planned a ten-year construction program for the period 1946–1955. [3], This was reaffirmed by a decree of the Council of Ministers on 28 January 1947. Three ships were ordered, but none were ever completed. It was towed from Nikolayev to Sevastopol in 1955, but it grounded at the entrance to Sevastopol Bay. [4], The Navy revived its requirement for a "cruiser-killer" during the war, but the design process was quite lengthy as questions as to its armament, speed and size were debated. Metacentric height was estimated at 2.6 m (8 ft 6 in), presumably in the design load condition. 50 mm (2.0 in) of armor covered the hull side above the belt as protection from splinters. Krupp had six incomplete turrets on hand that had originally been ordered before the war to rearm the Scharnhorst-class battleships, but they had been cancelled after the start of World War II. A preliminary purchase agreement was made to buy 12 guns and six turrets later that month, well before any studies were made to see if the substitution was even possible. February 5, 2020, 5:30 PM. She was then moved to the Naval Firing Range between Yevpatoria and Sevastopol where it was used as a target for seven P-1 or KSS anti-ship missiles fired from the converted Sverdlov-class cruiser Admiral Nakhimov in December 1956. Their barbettes had a maximum of 235 mm (9.3 in) on their forward faces and 200 mm (7.9 in) on the after face. They were the first large Soviet-built ships with a flush deck. [2] The Royal Navy came to the same conclusion and developed the Queen Elizabeth-class fast battleships that could force battle on an enemy fleet and had enough protection to attack any type of ship. He also ordered a reduction in the light anti-aircraft guns believing that its escorts would defend it. This design was approved by the Council of Ministers on 25 March 1950. In this role it would need to be a more powerful ship than the original design, taking over for the now-cancelled Kronstadts. Fakel-MO and Fakel-MZ antenna comprised the IFF system. [10], Korall radar-jammers were mounted on either side of the mainmast as well as a Machta system on the foremast. [9] The Navy made a serious proposal in 1925 to convert Izmail, the ship closest to completion, to an aircraft carrier, but this plan was later cancelled as a result of political maneuvering on the part of the Red Army. These ships had a complex and prolonged design process which was hampered by constantly changing requirements and the Great Purge in 1937. A series of at least four were planned, and Stalingrad finally began construction in 1951. The Stalingrad-class battlecruiser, also known as Project 82 (Russian: Тяжёлые крейсера проекта 82), was a Soviet battlecruiser design from 1941. In 1992 it … The official name for this class is Project 1144 or Sea Eagle, but it is also called Kirov after the name of the first battlecruiser to be built. All of these changes delayed approval of the detailed design until 1951. The joint design was 2,000 tonnes (2,000 long tons) smaller with a reduced secondary armament, but was about 1.5 knots (2.8 km/h; 1.7 mph) faster. [33][34] Commissioned into the Northern Fleet, Kirov was the largest surface warship, excluding aircraft carriers and amphibious assault vessels, built since the end of the Second World War. Kostenko. The hull was completely welded to save weight and they used longitudinal framing throughout. Moskva's keel was laid down in September 1952 by the Baltic Works in Leningrad. Supported primarily by Joseph Stalin and opposed by a considerable part of the naval staff, the project came to an abrupt end with his death in 1953. It refused to begin detailed design work pleading the uncertainty of the post-war building situation and the already heavy workload of its design bureau. And the unnamed ship was intended to be 5.2% along, but was only 2.5% complete. "[10] The triple bottom underneath the armored citadel was believed to protect the ship against a charge equivalent to 500 kg (1,100 lb) of TNT 5 metres (16 ft) below the ship's hull. Print; Email ; In the interwar period the battleship “Marat” was considered a symbol of the naval power of the Soviet Union. The Stalingrads also had Neptun and Nord navigational radars. The proposed size of the ship continually escalated as the requirement was revised to allow it to fight larger ships like the German Scharnhorst-class battleships. The proposal was dropped because both types would have needed a fully stabilized launching platform to give them any chance of hitting their targets and that the ballistic missiles would need three hours of preparation time. These last weapons were changed to 25 mm (0.98 in) in 1945. The Soviets envisioned one of these projects, the Kronshtadt-class battlecruiser, to be faster than Germany’s Bismarck-class battleship and more powerful than … Meanwhile in Russia, Moscow is still trying to squeeze life out of its Kirov-class battlecruisers. Two ships were laid down in 1939, but development of their new guns lagged significantly behind their construction and six 38-centimeter (15 in) twin-gun turrets were ordered from Germany in 1940. The deck armor in the citadel ranged in thickness, from 50 mm (2.0 in) for the upper deck, a 70-millimeter (2.8 in) middle deck—increased to 75 mm (3.0 in) over the handling rooms for the 130-millimeter (5.1 in) gun turrets—and a lower splinter deck of 15 mm (0.59 in), which increased outboard to 20 mm (0.79 in). The opening of Operation Barbarossa a month later rendered these plans moot as both the Project 82 and the Kronshtadt (Project 69) classes were put on hold. [23] By this time Stalin's support was the main impetus behind the ships and little time was wasted cancelling them after his death on 5 March 1953. A number of the ordinary methods to refloat a ship couldn't be used because she was very nearly empty and so nothing could be off-loaded and the rocky bottom meant that it couldn't be excavated out from underneath her. [34][35], The size of the Kirov class was approximately 28,000-long-ton (28,000 t) full load. The new design was significantly larger and was also tasked with dealing with German pocket battleships. The guns fired 33.4-kilogram (74 lb) shells at a muzzle velocity of 950–1,000 m/s (3,100–3,300 ft/s) to a maximum horizontal range of 32,390 m (35,420 yd) using 12.92 kg (28.5 lb) of propellant. [16] Its effective rate of fire was 240 rounds per minute and 1200 rounds were carried for each gun. To resolve the dispute a special commission was appointed, led by Lavrentiy Beria, which mostly sided with the Shipbuilding Commissariat in that most ships of the program would be improved versions of current designs. First, it is aiming to offer interesting and useful information about WW2. Built in the late 1980s, the Kirov-class battlecruisers were designed—like much of the Soviet navy at the time—to neutralize American carrier battle groups during warfare. The design was reimagined in 1944, intended to operate along with the Sverdlov-class cruisers and proposed aircraft carriers to make up powerful task forces able to challenge the American fleet. Reviews by the Navy and Shipbuilding Ministries in February 1951 led to some significant changes to the design in April. Solentse-1P infrared detectors were carried on either side of the superstructure. The 130 mm turrets were only protected by 25 mm (0.98 in) of armor as splinter protection. Traverse speed was 4.5° per second and each turret was ordinarily remotely controlled from the More-82 main fire control director, but could be locally controlled if necessary. The bureau preferred one layout and the Navy and the Shipbuilding Ministry concurred so the bureau began the technical design, without formal approval, in order to be ready to lay down the first two ships in the third quarter of 1950 as already scheduled. Three preliminary designs were proposed in response, but only one, which displaced 25,000 tonnes (25,000 long tons), was able to meet all of the requirements. This radar is called by the NATO observers "Top Pair". Admiral Lazarev (Russian: Адмирал Лазарев) is the second Kirov-class battlecruiser.Until 1992 she was named Frunze (Russian: Фрунзе) after a Project 68 cruiser (named after Bolshevik leader Mikhail Frunze); at that time she was renamed after Russian admiral Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev.The ship is currently laid up and in reserve status At this time a more detailed assessment was made of the situation and 259 steel projections were discovered on the underside of her hull, left over from her launching cradles. [17], Target data for the More-82 director was derived from the Zalp (NATO designation Half Bow) fire-control radar and Grot rangefinding radars mounted on turrets Nos. Construction of the ships was delayed as many domestic factories were already overloaded with orders and some components had to be ordered from abroad. Its rate of fire was 75 rounds per minute and 800 rounds were carried for each gun. "[6] The admirals also did not like the reduction in the secondary armament made to accommodate the larger machinery and extra boilers needed to reach the speed desired by Stalin, but he reminded them that most aircraft would attack the battlecruiser at heights below 1,500 m (4,900 ft) and the ceiling of the 130 mm was far in excess of that. In keeping with the battlecruiser design concept, they would have been able to outgun any ship with similar speed, or outrun anything more heavily armed. However, the Navy and the Shipbuilding Commissariat disagreed about the feasibility of laying down any ships of new design before 1950, so a committee was appointed under the chairmanship of Lavrentiy Beria to resolve the issue. The biggest and heaviest warship in the world is Russian – the Kirov – class Battlecruiser. "[1] Estimated characteristics were a displacement between 20,000–22,000 tonnes (20,000–22,000 long tons), nine main guns between 210–230 mm (8.3–9.1 in), a secondary battery of a dozen 130-millimeter (5.1 in) dual-purpose guns and thirty-two 37 mm AA guns. ^α The Kirov class was fitted with a primarily missile-based main armament; this is reflected in the table with "Main armament" given instead of "Main guns". The ships had a triple bottom underneath the armored citadel that had a height of 2.25 meters (7 ft 5 in) and 23 main watertight compartments. The battleship held its swan song in World War 2, superceded by the powerful and more tactically valuable aircraft carrier. [11], Additional armored plates were fixed to the third bulkhead of the underwater protection system to protect against diving shells hitting below the level of the waterline belt. This list may not reflect recent changes . [30][31] However, the sinking of the Israeli destroyer INS Eilat in 1967 by anti-ship missiles fired from an Egyptian missile boat led to a re-think of the use of surface ships in the role. The first was 8–15 mm (0.31–0.59 in) thick, the second was 8–25 mm (0.31–0.98 in), the third was 50 mm and the fourth 15–30 mm (0.59–1.18 in). A Russian crew found its way to the United Kingdom at the beginning of 1944 and commissioned the battleship officially as the Arkhangelsk on May 30, 1944. The first attempt used brute force provided by the cruisers Molotov and Kerch to unsuccessfully tow her off. It is one of the biggest warship of the world and it looks like a World War II battlecruiser. The requirement was reissued in 1944 for a larger ship and the concept was approved by the Poliburo in 1945. The ships of the Stalingrad class were 260 meters long at the waterline and 273.6 meters long overall. The Stalingrad-class battlecruiser, also known as Project 82 (Russian: Тяжёлые крейсера проекта 82), was a Soviet battlecruiser design from 1941. Initial attempts to pull it off the rocks by brute force failed, and the capsizing of the battleship Novorossiysk further delayed salvage work, so that she was not freed until mid-1956. When the program was discussed by the Politburo on 29 September 1945 there was no great disagreement on the large cruisers, although Stalin favored increasing the size of their main guns to 305 mm (12.0 in), but did not push the issue when Admiral Kuznetsov resisted. The SPN-500s carried a 4-meter (13 ft) rangefinder as well as Yakor (NATO designation Sun Visor) fire-control radar. In the event, none of the four ships of the class received a completely identical armament fit. These ranged in length from 40–169 mm (1.6–6.7 in) and totally invalidated all calculations about the amount of force required to free her. Four of the large cruisers were to begin construction, two each at Shipyard 402 in Molotovsk and Shipyard 444 at Nikolayev with another three planned to be laid down in 1953 and 1955. Design work had just started when the German invasion of the Soviet Union opened and the design was put on hold. It mostly sided with the Shipbuilding Commissariat, but a program of seven large cruisers was approved later that year. Embodying all the strengths and weaknesses of Fisher’s battlecruiser concept, Lion was every inch a thoroughbred. Thus, after his death in 1953, little time was wasted in cancelling the three ships that had been laid down. Each individual gun weighed 101.58 t (99.98 long tons; 111.97 short tons) and the complete turret weighed 1,370 t (1,350 long tons; 1,510 short tons). [11], The forward conning tower had a forward face of 250 mm (9.8 in) that thinned down to 225 mm on the aft section with a 100-millimeter (3.9 in) roof. Two mounts were fitted on each side of the forward funnel and the last two were superimposed above the rear main gun turret. [18] Neither ship had progressed very far at that time and both had been damaged during the war, so they were ordered scrapped on 24 March 1947 after some thought had been given to completing Kronshtadt as either an aircraft carrier or a mother ship for whalers. However, when Stalin reviewed the sketch design in September 1949, he rejected it, ordering a smaller, faster ship capable of 35 knots (65 km/h; 40 mph). By August 1947, the Navy and the Shipbuilding Ministry had winnowed down design proposals to only three, one from each armed with 305 mm guns and a joint design armed with 220 mm guns. Pages in category "World War II battleships of the Soviet Union" The following 7 pages are in this category, out of 7 total. The middle deck behind this splinter belt was 50 mm (2.0 in) thick. [8], The ships of the Stalingrad class were 260 meters (853 ft 0 in) long at the waterline, and 273.6 meters (897 ft 8 in) long overall. This type, classed as a "heavy nuclear-powered missile cruiser" by the Soviets, eventually emerged as the largest non-aircraft carrying surface warship built since the end of the Second World War, and was termed in the West as a battlecruiser.[6]. The speed, range and aircraft requirements remained the same, although the torpedo tubes were dropped. The official name for this class is Project 1144 or Sea Eagle, but it is also called Kirov after the name of the first battlecruiser to be built. It was a smaller and less-expensive counterpart to the Kronshtadt -class battlecruisers of 1939., Articles containing Russian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The dates work began and finished on the ship and its ultimate fate, 3 screws, 3 geared steam turbines, 32 kn (59 km/h; 37 mph), 4 screws, 4 × geared steam turbines, 35.5 kn (65.7 km/h; 40.9 mph), This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 15:11. These preparations were very time-consuming and it wasn't until mid-July 1956 that it could be pulled off the rocks into Sevastopol harbor where she was given more permanent repairs. The Soviet Navy that fought in WW2 was a small (comparatively however on a larger scale than the kriegsmarine) in 1941, but with losses and fall in wartime production, dwindled rapidly; Nevertheless she was still an asset that Stalin used at best in the black sea and the Baltic until 1945. The steering gear was protected by 170 mm (6.7 in) of armor on the sides, a 70–100-millimeter (2.8–3.9 in) deck and a 200-millimeter (7.9 in) armored bulkhead aft. The most likely explanation is that the designers retained as much of their original work as possible and found room for the more powerful turbines and more numerous boilers necessary to attain Stalin's specified speed by deleting the two rear twin 130 mm turrets, and their magazines, as revealed by a comparison of the 1949 and 1951 sketches. It was a smaller and less-expensive counterpart to the Kronshtadt -class battlecruisers of 1939. The four Borodino-class battlecruisers (also referred to as Izmail class) of the Imperial Russian Navy were all laid down in December 1912 at Saint Petersburg for service with the Baltic Fleet. [5], The Navy didn't like the compromises made to reduce the displacement down to Stalin's 36,000 tonnes (35,000 long tons) and to achieve the high speed demanded as revealed in a March 1950 meeting in the Kremlin where Stalin revealed critical points about his thoughts for these ships. The ballistic missiles would have been launched from vertical tubes replacing the forward turrets, and in one version, the entire main armament. When they said no, he then asked if any twin 380-millimeter (15 in) turrets were available instead. In fact pocket battleship "Lutzow" had run aground off Narvik, but this still left battleship "Tirpitz", pocket battleship "Admiral Scheer" and heavy cruiser "Admiral Hipper" - all formidable adversaries, which reach Altenfiord on the 3rd. [1], The project was revived in 1943 with a new requirement issued on 15 September. Over a dozen preliminary designs had been proposed by May 1944, but none were acceptable. The Giuis-2 also interfered with ultra-shortwave radio reception. The detailed design was supposed to be completed by 15 October 1941, but it was rendered pointless when the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in June. [10], The TsKB-17 design bureau proposed variants of the design with both cruise and ballistic missiles. [41] However, in April 2019 it was announced that both Admiral Ushakov and Admiral Lazarev were to be finally withdrawn and broken up. We are not considering conducting oceanic battles, but instead will fight close to our own shores, so we do not need a large ammunition supply on the ship. It was first built in the time of the Soviet Union. The Soviet classification of the ship-type is "heavy nuclear-powered guided missile cruiser" (Russian: тяжёл… They were designed in response to the battleships being built by Germany. [42][43] Once Admiral Nakhimov has rejoned the fleet, Pyotr Velikiy is planned to undergo a similar modernization. The goal of this site is two fold. Stalingrad's hull was ordered to be used for weapons tests while the two other ships were scrapped where they lay. Details by Oleg Pomoshnikov, Jan Radziemski Hits: 10514. These were backed up by a single KDP-8-10 optical director mount fitted with 8-meter (26 ft) and 10-meter (33 ft) rangefinders. In addition the thickness of her belt armor was increased from 150 to 180 mm (5.9 to 7.1 in), possibly in response to weight savings elsewhere. They were to be fitted in a new twin-gun BL-109A dual-purpose mount. The ship was originally commissioned into service with the Soviet Navy in the 1980s, known back then as Kalinin (Калинин), a name the ship kept until 1992. The list of battleships includes all battleships built between c. 1890 and 1946, arranged alphabetically by country. Military Weapons Military Aircraft Us Navy Soviet Navy Norwegian Air Peter The Great Naval Military Photos Navy Ships. [32] Equipped with both anti-ship and anti-submarine missiles, as well as area defence and point defence surface to air missiles, torpedoes and a pair of 100-millimetre (3.9 in) guns, the ship gave the Soviet Union a visible platform for power projection in the immediate absence of large aircraft carriers. [14], Twenty-four 45-millimeter (1.8 in) 78-caliber light anti-aircraft guns were to be carried by the Stalingrads in six quadruple SM-20-ZIF power-driven, fully enclosed mounts. Air search capability was provided by the Fut-N (NATO designation Slim Net) radar with anti-aircraft fire control provided by Fut-B (NATO designation Hawk Screech) radars. "[6] Furthermore, he believed that they would fight close to home, defending the coastal waters of Soviet Union. These designs weren't reviewed until March 1948, probably because of the need to coordinate reaction to the American Marshall Plan, and Stalin approved the Navy's more heavily protected design. Russia's Huge Kirov-Class Battlecruisers Are The Russian Navy's Deadly Swiss Army Knife. She was the most-described and filmed ship of the Country of the Soviets. Admiral Nakhimov (Russian: Адмирал Нахимов) is the third battlecruiser of the Russian Navy 's Kirov class. This was basically identical to the original, but added one new requirement: "Protect the operations of aircraft carriers and conduct joint operations with them. Apparently this was believed to improve their protective qualities, although there is no indication of how it did this. Zumwalt ’s opponent, the battlecruiser Kirov, is a relic from another era. Traverse speed was 30° per second. The Sovetsky Soyuz-class battleships (Project 23, Russian: Советский Союз, "Soviet Union"), also known as "Stalin's Republics", were a class of battleships begun by the Soviet Union in the late 1930s but never brought into service. The guns in this mount could depress to −13° and elevate to 85° at a rate of 25° a second. [3], A bigger problem was the resistance of the Shipbuilding Commissariat which said it would be impossible to lay down any ships of new design until about 1950 and that only incremental changes could be made to the designs currently in production. In the last field, this ship has the biggest radar antenna mounted on foremast. "The total depth of the system was about 4–4.5 m (13–15 ft) amidships, which seems rather shallow. The ships were launched in 1915–1916, but the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917 put a stop to their construction, which never resumed. Built in the late 1980s, the Kirov-class battlecruisers were designed—like much of the Soviet navy at the time—to neutralize American carrier battle groups during warfare. It has 430 ships in active service or in reserve. … The Soviet Aircraft Carrier: Torpedoed by Peristroika? Twenty years later the Soviet Navy issued a requirement for a ship capable of dealing with enemy cruisers, but the design began to grow as it was modified to allow for combat with German pocket battleships on even terms, and later modified to gain parity with the Scharnhorst-class battleships. Below the main deck they were protected by only 195–155 mm (7.7–6.1 in) of armor. The main surface-search radar was Rif-A (NATO designation Ball End) that had a range of 40 km (25 mi) against surface targets. Read full article. Aft there was a lightly protected auxiliary control station with 50 mm sides.
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